The Book of Common Prayer and John Wesley


Service of the Word for the 2nd Sunday in Lent

 Here is the early (8:30) service from this past Sunday.  The message is on Jonah 3:1 - 4:4.

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Courage: When you Pass Through Fire


Why use Liturgical worship?


Who Knows...

The message from this past Sunday about our need to "be heard" and "be known." 

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Celebrating the Savior in 2020 and beyond

Like so many others, I too have found solace in watching worship services and listening to sermons online.  One of the churches I have watched the most is St. Andrews Anglican Cathedral in Sydney, Australia, which is known as a Bible-believing and evangelical congregation based in a beautiful gothic cathedral, built in the grand Medieval style.

This is the opening hymn from their Christmas Eve service, and I have to say, it actually moved me to tears.  During the last verse (which I've not heard before, though we sing this hymn every year), there is a shot of a tiny little boy - he looks about 4 - who seems to be so focused and working his absolute hardest to do his little part help bring this musical message of the Gospel out to the world.  
That is even more beautiful than the cathedral.  May we all, young or old, follow suite in our own callings.

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Chaos at the Capitol and the Baptism of Christ

 Here is my sermon for last Sunday, (in part) a reflection on the state of our country after the riots and storming of the US Capitol that took place on the Feast of the Epiphany.

As I say in the sermon, our country will only have healing and reconciliation if leaders from all sides bend over backwards to extend olive branches to "the other side", even when it means setting some of their own partisan ambitions aside.  Our country, as some international observers have said, looks like a powder keg.  Drastic measures should be taken to "de-escalate" things right now.  

Sadly, I think the moves to impeach a president who only has 2 weeks left in office is exactly the wrong move.  It serves no real purpose besides revenge, which only and always begets more revenge.  And, ironically, it ensures that Trump's name will always live in the history books, which I am sure will please him.

It seems to me that Biden and the Democrats had a unique moment last week to rise to the occasion and put the country above politics in a way that Trump was (in my view) not doing.  And they blew it by reverting to the usual Washington DC power-grabbing and political maneuvering.  As if it is all they can see.  I truly do fear for the future of this country.

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Sermons of Advent and Christmas

 IN a sermons series that was loosely intended as a commentary on the Nicene Creed (which my congregations always use during Advent), I examined classic mistakes or heresies of the ancient church that are, in different ways, still with us.

As always, the best way to follow my videos is to go on YouTube and subscribe to my channel and hit the "notification" button (if you have the option) to get email updates.  I try to post 2 videos a week.

I've already posted one of these sermons in a previous post.  Here is the rest of the series:






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The faith and spirituality of the Creeds


Why some Protestant churches look "Catholic"


Second Sunday of Advent Sermon


First Sunday of Advent Sermon

In the Nicene Creed we say that the Holy Spirit "has spoken through the Prophets" and that Christ's mighty acts of Salvation were "in accordance with the Scripture." 

In this sermon I address the Marcionite heresy which, in a "soft" form, is with American Christians still today.

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Important Books: The Great Divorce

 Here are my thoughts on this masterpiece from C.S. Lewis, one of my all-time favorite works on Christian spirituality.

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Important Books: Upper Room Spiritual Classics


Important Book: The Imitation of Christ

 My thoughts (posted originally a few months back) on this beloved devotional classic.

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NT Wright - The Challenge of Jesus and other good books

Here are my reflections on some of the first books I discovered from this guy called NT Wright.


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Important Books: The Shallows - What the Internet is doing to our Brains by Carr

 I know I've blogged about this one before, but here it is again, well worth a revisit.  Along the book discussed in my last book review video, Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death, I believe Carr also helps identify some of the reasons that our public discourse has become shallower and more foolish and less civil and wise in recent decades.  It's the way we are re-shaping our brains through the use of the internet.


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Important Books: Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman

 Here is another book recommendation video, looking at one of the most prophetic books of my lifetime: Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business.

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The Art of Dying Well


My reflections on the Screwtape Letters

Here is another discussion and introduction to a book that I believe is important for Christians, and which has impacted me: The Screwtape Letters by C.S. Lewis.

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Thoughts on Voting

Peace in any Circumstance

Having the Mind of Christ in an Election Year


Ideas that had consequences in 2020

 Here is a great lecture from Roman Catholic Bishop Robert Barron on the philosophers whose ideas are now expressing themselves - sometimes even violently - on the streets of many American cities.  This is a great video and well-worth watching it all.  I wish I had access to this back when I was taking courses on Political Philosophy at LSU.

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Mere Christianity by C.S. Lewis

My reflections on one of the Great Ones:

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Thank God the Christians ended slavery

 I find it interesting that, at least in some circles, Western Civilization has been so thoroughly dismissed and derided for having accepted the sin of slavery, while at the same time every other civilization in world history which practiced slavery (basically all of them) is given a 'free pass' and also the role of West - and of Christianity in particular - in fighting to end slavery goes largely un-mentioned.

If we want to do real justice to the historical facts, we should be celebrating the role of Christianity - Evangelical Christianity in particular - in fighting to drive this evil from our common life.  Matthew Everhard is one of the Presbyterian/Reformed YouTubers that I follow, and in this video he does exactly that: 

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Celebration of Discipline by Richard Foster

My reflections on Foster's spiritual classic.

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Rod Dreher on Defending and renewing Western and Christian Civilization

 This is an interesting video that brings together a number of authors and themes that I've been chewing on in recent years:  He talks about Patrick Deneen's thesis in Why Liberalism Failed, about how Christianity has been supplanted in the hearts of many by "spin-off religions" such as "Moralistic Therapeutic Deism" or "Social Justice Warrior-ism."  He discusses Alister MacIntyre's After Virtue, and how the Benedictine monasteries preserved Western Civilization as the Roman Empire collapsed and knowledge and technology actually regressed.  He discusses practical things that we can be doing to help preserve the legacy of all that is best in Western Civilization (while also being frankly honest about the bad and the ugly).    

Definitely alot to chew on here (and maybe a bit some readers may want to spit back out); I certainly think Dreher is on the right track here, and have come to see my role as a parent and as a spiritual father to my church as passing on, first and foremost, the Biblical faith in Christ, and secondly as passing along the very best of the Western tradition to others.

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How to read the Bible Wisely

Reading the Bible wisely (Maybe I could subtitle this: "Don't blame the Bible when you say something foolish").

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"False Alarm" on Climate Change? An interview with the Author

In a year or two, I'd like to finally sit down and watch Al Gore's movie "An Inconvenient Truth" and see how many of the predictions have or have not come to pass.  I suspect the latter will more often be the case, but we will see.

Now, I must say - like the author in this interview - that I do believe in Climate Change, I do believe that at least a good portion of it is man-made, and I do believe that our public policy and our personal habits should work together to minimize its impact.  Indeed, the energy efficiency revolution, combined with lower-emission sources of energy are already having a significant impact.

But I also believe that the danger posed by Climate Change has been exaggerated to the point of absurdity, particularly by our media and politicians.  
And, I cannot help but note, they are also precisely the people who have the most to gain in terms of influence or profits from everyone believing a narrative that says "The End is Nigh!" (so read this article! or vote for this savior!).

Indeed, according to this video, surveys show that nearly half (48%) of the world's adults believe that "Climate Change is likely to cause the extinction of the human race." 

This interview is with a "climate economist" named Bjorn Lomborg, who says that the facts indeed do not support this kind of dire thinking.

I cannot help but thinking that there is something about the human spirit that has trouble seeing anything past the absolute very the worst case scenario (or worse still!).  Remember Y2K?  The voices saying "Probably nothing much will happen" were certainly not the voices most amplified in our public discourse.  But they turned out to be right.

Again, the Climate problem is real, and bad things will indeed happen if we do nothing...but humans are extremely adaptive and assuming that we will do nothing at all, as some news articles have done (which he points out in the video), is an unrealistic assumption.  

As I said, Mr. Lomborg is a climate economist, and I am always suspicious of arguments that pit economic benefits over against environmental health in a simplistic way (and then always say to go with "economic benefit").  
Mr. Lomborg has a much more nuanced and data-driven approach.  

He also points out some things that are often missed in the discussions.  For example, many of the strategies to combat climate change have a disproportionately negative impact on the lives of the poor and working class.  

As Christians are called to care for the poor and needy - and also be good stewards of the natural world - this is an especially important consideration for us as we think and pray through these issues. 

Anyways, that is enough introduction: here is the thought-provoking video.

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Theological Discernment in the Church

John Wesley, at the end of his "Roman Catechism and Reply" shares this great quote from St. Vincent of Lerins, one of the Early Church Fathers.  St. Vincent (died A.D. 445) was describing how the Seven ancient Ecumenical Councils determined what was and was not orthodox Christian belief, as they attempted to clarify the Bible-based faith during times of theological controversy.

Embracing this theological method as a gift from God was United Methodist theologian Thomas C. Oden's great point that he argued for in so many of his books: From the Ancient Councils right down to John Wesley, right down to the Classical Christians of today (over against all forms of what might be called "revisionist" Christianity), we have a remarkable agreement about how to do theology.  Look for what is held in common across the ages, across the cultural boundaries, by the great mass of Christians.  That is orthodoxy.  This is what is meant by doing theology by "catholicity" or "ecumenical consensus."

This saves us from odd, idiosyncratic, or culturally captive forms of belief.  This is how we hear what the Spirit has been saying to the churches.

It is ancient; it is also Wesleyan.  It is Classic Christianity.

Since Wesley was an Anglican priest, it will come as no surprise that this method is largely the approach to theology taken by the Anglican tradition as well.

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Sunday's Sermon: That's not fair!


Getting a Quality Bible

Here is my video on getting a high quality Bible that you will love to hold, love to read.

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Chronological Bibles (Feasting on the Word)

Let's face it, the Bible is not an easy book to read.  Not only are we separated from the original writers by language, culture, and thousands of years, but the standard Bible that you probably have on your shelf or nightstand is not presented in chronological order.  What if you could read the Bible as one large, unfolding story like a novel or Historical chronicle?  Well, you can.

Another great tool to help you understand the Bible as a whole is the Chronological Bible:

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The CS Lewis Bible and The Ancient Modern Bible

Here are my thoughts about Devotional Bibles, and two in particular, the CS Lewis Bible (NRSV) and the Ancient-Modern Bible (NKJV)

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Genuine Beauty more sustainable than Trendy Fashions

Here is another really great video from Roman Catholic layman Brian Holdsworth discussing artistic beauty.  As in other videos, he talks about how modern and postmodern architecture (and other forms of art) that are simply 'trendy' do not age as well as more classic designs; trendy or fashionable modern designs tend to look "dated" or simply "ugly" within a generation, while the classic designs tend to be acknowledged as beautiful for centuries.

What is the difference?  The ancient Greek philosophers believed that beauty was objective, and not simply "in the eye of the beholder."  Those designs that come nearest to expressing objective truth are most enduring and beloved over time.  The Early and Medieval Christians believed the same thing, holding that Beauty was objective precisely because its ultimate source is God himself.

But, don't different people look at works of art and respond in different ways?  Doesn't this prove that beauty is subjective?  Holdsworth deals with this objection by pointing out that different people also give different responses to a mathematical equation, but it does not therefore follow that there is no right answer after all.  It is simply a reflection of the fallible nature of human thinking.  This applies also to our thinking about beauty.

I'm sharing this video as one more plea for everyone to support the building and maintaining of buildings that are built according to classic modes or styles rather than modern or post-modern or trendy buildings that will look terrible in 40 years.  

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Feasting on the Word: Thoughts on Study Bibles

Some thoughts and Recommendations on Study Bibles:

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Amazing speech

Amazing, inspiring, gut-wrenching, God-honoring...all this and more:

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Feasting on the Word: Bible Translations

Feasting on the Word is a series of videos I've created introducing the various tools and approaches that you can use to help you study, understand, and feast upon God's Word in the Bible.  This first video discusses Bible translations and includes a few recommendations:

In short, my recommendations are to get:

NRSV or ESV for a very accurate Bible to read and study (what I tend to read and preach from)
NIV for a "middle way" between an accurate translation and a (less accurate) easy to read translation
NLT for those whose main concern is getting a Bible in a very easy to read translation;

Note that, in the attempt to "smooth out" the translation into easier-to-read English, the NLT often (and the NIV sometimes) will give you the translator's interpretation of a text instead of a straight translation of the original words, and these interpretations always represent the view of a particular church or theological tradition over and against other possible interpretations

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Psalm Study Video: The Grand Finale Psalms 146-150

A look at the five "Hallelujah!" Psalms that close out the Book of Psalms.

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Are we living through another "Reformation Era"?

If you've studied (as I have) Church history, you know that the era of the Reformation, which spanned the 16th Century, was not exactly a peaceful or happy time, though it did bring with it many opportunities.

Historian Niall Ferguson shows that the disruption of the public square caused by the advent of the internet has a close analogue in the disruption that was caused by the printing press, and we are now living with similar consequences.

Of course, one of the consequences of that disruption in the 16th Century was long, massive, and continent-wide warfare.  Let us learn the lessons of history and work and pray for peace.

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Psalm Study video #11: Psalm 119

Some thoughts and comments on Meditating on God's word as described in Psalm 119, the "granddaddy of them all."

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Jonathan Haidt explains why everything is crazy now...

Ok, not exactly, but kind of.

Haidt is a Social Psychologist and he is discussing some of the same trends that have alarmed conservative commentators, though Haidt himself comes from the Left.

I've featured him in another recent post, and he is the co-author of The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas are setting up a Generation for Failure.

While I certainly have some political and philosophical disagreements with Dr. Haidt, I've added him to my list of "YouTube Intellectuals" that I'm following, and I think the over-arching point that he makes in this video is critically important.


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Last Sunday's Message on the Mustard Seed

Forgot to post this at the beginning of the week, but here is the whole service from this past Sunday.  Bible readings are Matthew 13 and Romans 8.

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Psalms Study Video #10

A look at Prayers for Help in the Book of Psalms.

Read ahead:
Psalm 61, Psalm 70, and Psalm 86

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A Christian Response to "Cancel Culture"

One thing that has been nice about YouTube is that I've found Christian voices from all over the Church - Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Wesleyan, Evangelical, Reformed/Presbyterian - that have some really good things to say about living our faith in these times.  The primary voice from the Lutheran Tradition that I've been listening to is Dr. Jordan Cooper, a confessional Lutheran with an interest in Systematic and Scholastic theology.

Cooper is always thoughtful and articulate so I've both enjoyed an profited from his videos.  Here is is video in response to the "cancelling of J.K. Rowling" and "cancel culture" in general.

For those who are unfamiliar with this controversy, Rowling has drawn the ire of Progressives, and been labeled a bigot for asserting that a man is not a woman and that freedom of speech is a good idea; some authors have even refused to work with the Publishing company that handles her works. 

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Sunday's Message: Creation is Groaning

My message from this past Sunday on Romans 8 and Matthew 13.  God bless you!

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Psalms Study Video #9

Nature & Creation spirituality in the Psalms.

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Promoting Viewpoint Diversity at the University

Jonathan Haidt is a social psychologist and Professor of Ethical Leadership at New York University's Stern School of Business.  He is another "YouTube intellectual" I've been following a bit lately.

He has been a prominent voice (and one from the political left, I might add) calling for reform at our universities that are increasingly homogeneous in terms of political perspective or ideology.  He is (rightly) concerned that efforts to stifle free expression of ideas and shield students from any and all viewpoints that might be upsetting leads inevitably to a loss of intellectual rigor, both among faculty and students.

If controversial (often simply another word for "conservative") speakers are banned or shouted down when they attempt to share their perspectives on campus, this means that students and faculty never "do business" with their ideas, never examine the claims, never evaluate the evidence. 
Far from protecting the students, this intellectual sheltering can only leave them less prepared to evaluate the many new or challenging ideas that they will encounter for the rest of their lives upon leaving the university.

He also shares about the work he and colleagues are doing at https://heterodoxacademy.org/ to bring about reform and also rank schools according to their openness to free inquiry and the free debate of ideas. 

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Psalms Study Video #8

The next video shows how the Gospel of Salvation is shown forth in the Psalms, using John Wesley's "Way of Salvation" to explain how it works:

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Sunday's Message: Got Fruit?


N.T. Wright on Undermining Racism

Christianity has a unique contribution to make in combating racist attitudes; indeed it is not for no reason that the very concept of combating racism itself emerged in Western cultures that have historically dominated by Christianity.

Here is a video from theologian and retired Anglican bishop N.T. Wright addressing this issue:

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Psalms Study Video #7

Here is the next video studying the Book of Psalms.  In this video: Songs of Thanksgiving.

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Message for Independence Day Weekend

Here is my Sermon for Independence Day Weekend, July 5, 2020.  I'm continuing to follow (albeit somewhat loosely) the Lectionary through The Gospel according to Matthew and The Letter to the Romans.

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One Nation under God...?

"One Nation, Under God..."
Why is that phrase in our pledge of allegiance so important?  Why do some want to remove it?

There are many reasons, but one is this: "Under God" stands as a constant reminder that human beings and human government are not the highest authority.  The power of the State cannot demand our very highest allegiance, because there is a higher power still.

In a world where the State has often made itself into an idol - from Ancient Rome to Modern Communist states - the claim that there is a higher Power that is the Ultimate source of Justice serves as a continual check against the tendency of the state or those in power to grasp more than is right.

Go back and read the Declaration of Independence.  The very logic of it runs like this: God is the highest Power and the Highest source of Justice.  Insofar as the King and Parliament of Great Britain have acted contrary to God's design, by trampling our God-given rights, then the King and Parliament really are in the Wrong.  That is what makes our Declaration of Independence from them a legitimate and justified act.

We were appealing to the Justice of God over against the injustice of our human rulers.  That is of course why the Colonists had flags that said things like "An Appeal to Heaven" on them.
That is also why governments and people in authority - especially those who have turned their own power into an idol - will often try to either hijack the Church (as the Nazis did, putting swastikas on the altars in German churches) or they will try to destroy the Church altogether (as the Communists have attempted to do for over a century now wherever they've come to power) - because the Church's confession that "Jesus is Lord" will always bring with it the corollary "and therefore the State is not..."

Below is a remarkable video from Bishop Barron discussing just this topic:

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Psalms Study Video #6

Here is the next video in the Study on the Book of Psalms.  This covers the Psalms of Lament (and Cursing Psalms):

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Sunday's Message: Dying to Live


Jordan Peterson on the power of Ideology to bring Hell on Earth

Like millions others around the world, I've engaging with the thought of Jordan Peterson in recent years and profited from doing so.

While we do have some philosophical differences, I think Peterson's critique of Ideology-based censorship (sometimes colloquially referred to as "political correctness") and his critique of Intersectional Ideology (also known as Critical Theory, Cultural Marxism, Intersectional Feminism, Grievance Studies, Liberation Theology, Politics of Emancipation, Social Justice Ideology and so on) is extremely timely, important, and perhaps even Prophetic in this particular cultural moment.

I also respect his unswerving commitment to remain civil with his debate opponents, who are not always so civil with him.

So here is a video that describes how radical ideologies, when they become all-consuming (or, as we Christians would say, when they become "idols") also become murderous and deeply de-humanizing.  We need only pay attention to history (so difficult to do in our distracted age) to see that this is in fact the case: 

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Psalms Study Video #5

Here is the Bible Study video discussing the Penitential Psalms (Psalms of Confession).

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Fathers' Day Message: A Tale of Two Fathers


Why the Liturgy is not a matter of personal preference

One "YouTube intellectual" that I've been watching for the last couple of years is a Roman Catholic layman named Brian Holdsworth.

He seeks to explain and defend basic Christian beliefs and practices, and is particularly geared toward "the internet generation."

Much of his content has to do with specifically Roman Catholic questions, but many of his points and arguments could just as easily be echoed by orthodox and Methodists, Anglicans, Lutherans, and other Protestants as well.

This excellent video covers some of the same ground as a blog post I wrote years ago called "The Liturgy questions us: What is 'relevant' anyways?"

The Liturgy means "the work of the people" or "the public service" and is used to describe what Christians classically have done when we gather together for worship.

The liturgy typically includes things like reading Scripture and celebrating Holy Communion with the Great Thanksgiving Prayer.  It typically includes things like the Creeds, the Doxology, the Lord's Prayer, and the closing blessing or Benediction.

Yet in recent years there has been a tendency in many historic denominations to downplay the importance of, or jettison altogether, some of these historic liturgical practices in order to produce a worship experience that is more "seeker-sensitive" and which feels more "relevant."

What this often results in is a truncated liturgy that consists of singing a few songs modeled on contemporary pop music, and then a very practical, sometimes "self-help" oriented" message, based upon a few sentences of Scripture, rather than a sustained reading of one or more longer passages.

Yet there are theological problems with reconstructing the liturgy based upon the cultural fads of the moment (which is usually what is meant by "relevant").  One of the problems with building the service around our own preferences, (as Holdsworth points out) is that, to the extent that what we do expresses only personal or local preferences (or the preferences of the current cultural moment), then our worship ceases to be something that we hold in common with other Christians; it ceases to be "catholic" in the sense of being something that we share in common with a world-wide community of believers.

I've thought about this in terms of music when doing nursing home services.  Christians in nursing homes, coming from all manner of different denominations, all nevertheless treasure many of the same old hymns.  These hymns represent a worship experience that was held in common across denominational lines.

Since many of our churches now follow a "top 40" style of music, where the songs we sing this year will be displaced by newer songs next year, and those in turn will be displaced by still others the year after that, I do wonder whether my generation will share many "songs of faith" in common when it comes time for us to be in the nursing homes.

All that is not to say that I oppose new music; I actually love new music, and every "old hymn" you can think of was once a brand new song that nobody knew; but I think new music and other worship practices should be integrated into a larger worship tradition that is held in common, and remains constantly recognizable across the generations, even as new elements are added in.

Those are a few thoughts and ideas to introduce this video:

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Psalms Study Video #4

Here is video number 4, covering Psalms 3-5 as daily Morning and Evening Prayers.

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Sunday's Message on Compassion in divided times


Dice and the probability that God is real

There are plenty of different kinds of evidence that God is real.
I remember being struck as a child by philosopher's question: "Why is there something, rather than nothing?"

There are philosophical arguments that God is real, there are historical prophecies fulfilled, there are various kinds of personal experiences and encounters, there are moral truths that we humans cannot quite shake, but which point to a transcendent Standard of Right and Justice.  None of these are, in my view, totally "open and shut" cases that no one could doubt.  But when you add them all together they make a strong case.

Another kind of evidence for God's existence has emerged as science has taught us more about the structure of the Universe (yes, science can actually support our faith in God); we now see that our Universe seems to be perfectly fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of life.  It is a new form of the old question: Why is it thus?  What are the odds that the Universe would be just so?


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Psalms Study Video #3

Here is video #3 on the Psalms Bible Study, Psalm 22 for Good Friday.

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Psalms Study Video #2

Here is Lesson 2 on the Book of Psalms:

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Ravi Zacharias on John Wesley

Some of you may have heard just a couple weeks ago that the great evangelical Christian teacher Ravi Zacharias passed away.  Zacharias was a world-renowned and brilliant apologist and defender of the Christian faith.  He made it his life's mission to demonstrate to the world that the Christian faith was true.  Here is a video of Zacharias talking about one of my patron saints, John Wesley.

Thanks be to God for the work and ministry of both of these truly great men.

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Psalms Study Video #1

I've got a 12-part video Bible Study series looking at the Book of Psalms now available on YouTube.  I'll also be releasing those videos here.

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Sunday's Message

OK everyone, I have mostly shifted my content to my YouTube Channel, which is just called "Daniel Hixon."
I will be sharing those videos on this blog as well.

Here is the Sunday message from yesterday.  You can see other videos HERE.

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New Video Series: Episode 1

I've been watching a number of pastors, theologians, and thinkers in other fields on YouTube for the last couple of years, and decided to try my hand at short topical videos pondering the 'big ideas' in theology, culture, philosophy, politics, etc.

Here is my first video; the second one is already on YouTube, but I want to try to figure out how to get a better camera resolution before I make a third one...

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What is "Cultural Marxism"?

Many of the "internet intellectuals" I've been paying attention to in recent years - like Bishop Robert Barron or Jordan Peterson or Dave Rubin - have frequently spoken of "Cultural Marxism" as one of the sources of the conflict in our politics and public discourse.

Moves to limit free speech or prevent conservative speakers from sharing their ideas or to create "safe spaces" on college campuses are all related to Cultural Marxism.  So are "diversity quotas" in hiring or university admissions, such as those at Harvard that have recently been challenged by Asian families in a lawsuit.  Even the moves by some schools or children's sports teams to give out "participation trophies" or promote games in which "everyone wins", so that there will be an equality of outcome for all participants is related to Cultural Marxism.

Sometimes people refer to Cultural Marxism, or to its effects, with other related terms you may have heard, such as "Identity Politics," "Intersectional Feminism," or even "Political Correctness."

When I first ran across the term "Cultural Marxism," I was a bit perplexed.  I initially suspected that this was merely a way that conservatives were labeling and dismissing their debate opponents in much the same way that people on the Left routinely call those who disagree with them "fascists."

Yet a little research showed that the term "Cultural Marxism" actually has far more substance than a mere 'ad hominem' or name-calling attack.

Karl Marx saw all of human history as a class struggle between those who owned the means of production and those poor folks who worked for them.  The wealthy were the oppressors and the poor workers were the oppressed.

Marx saw the need for a workers' Revolution that would bring about a new kind of government and society, in which such inequalities were abolished.  Marx's idea unleashed the sad history of Socialism & Communism and has (so far) led to some 100 million violent deaths.
It is simply a matter of historical fact (for those who study history) that in every country that Socialism has been tried there has been not only massive political repression, but also economic devastation as well.

Cultural Marxism takes at least 2 fundamental ideas from Marx, but applies them to areas beyond economic class struggle.
1) First is the idea that history is the story of oppressors (those with "privilege") mistreating oppressed peoples; while Marx saw these dynamics in exclusively economic terms, Cultural Marxism sees this struggle not only in economic terms, but also in terms of race, gender, religious & national distinctions and so on.

2) The other major idea taken from Marx is that a new kind of government or society is needed that will force 'equality of outcome' upon everyone, in order to rectify historic inequalities.

For this reason Cultural Marxists identify "oppressed groups" who need to be "empowered" or "emancipated" through non-discrimination laws, diversity quotas, and so on.  These oppressed groups take on a kind of "favored" status, which leads to that sort of Political Correctness culture that has taken hold in many Universities and which (polls show) large majorities of Americans (even Democrats) actually find odious.

In theological schools and seminaries Cultural Marxism shows up in various forms of Liberation Theology.

The video below does a great job explaining what Cultural Marxism is, and why it matters.  Below that I'll note some of the fundamental issues that I see with Cultural Marxism.

First, I'll note that I think this video makes an interesting point that Marxism, and cultural Marxism as well, could only have developed (and did in fact develop) within a largely Christian-ized society.

It is Christianity that has taught us that we ought to look after the "widow and the orphan", the weak and the marginalized.  This is one of the things that makes Christianity and its vision of Justice morally beautiful.

Yet one big problem with cultural Marxism is that (like Marx himself) it lumps everyone into identity groups based on characteristics such as race or gender or class, without any regard for the individual differences between one person and another: differences in their choices, their character, or their life experiences.

Thus, while Martin Luther King Jr. longed for a day when his children would be judged, "not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character," Cultural Marxism does the exact reverse: it judges people on the basis of their race or gender.  It is a sad irony that in the name of "justice" and "inclusion" Cultural Marxism actually perpetuates racial and gender stereotyping and even discrimination (or "reverse discrimination").

It therefore runs directly counter to the best traditions of the American Republic, which seeks to treat each individual on the basis of his or her own merits, rather than what family or group he or she came from.

So, while the Cultural Marxist would look at the parable of the Good Samaritan and tell us that the most important thing is that the Samaritan is a marginalized outsider, Jesus' point is almost precisely the reverse: it does not matter that the Samaritan is a Samaritan or that the Jews were Jews, the important thing is that this individual chose to show compassion, while the other individuals chose to ignore the (Jewish) man in distress.  If we (like Jesus' original hearers) had judged the situation only based upon tribal identities we would have expected the story to go quite differently.  That is Jesus' point: their tribal identities are not what matter in this story, but their individual choices.  To echo MLK, the "content of their character" is what counts.

Here is another way that Cultural Marxism also runs counter to the Christian message.  While Cultural Marxism says that our identity and our place in society is determined by our race or gender or class, Christianity explicitly says that all of these divisions are secondary, and all are superseded and re-defined based on our relationship to God through Jesus Christ.  That relationship to Christ is now the defining characteristic of our identity.  This means that among Christian brothers and sisters racial and class and gender distinctions, while they still exist, they can no longer be a source of division between us (see Galatians 3:28).  Yet cultural Marxism divides people into precisely these tribal groups and tells them that they are ipso facto in conflict and competition with one another.

And, while it is great at identifying real injustices, this ideology of Cultural Marxism has no narrative of Redemption and holds out little hope of reconciliation.  If you were born into a privileged and oppressive group, that is simply who you will always be.

The more I pay attention, I am increasingly convinced that this ideology is both pervasive and extremely dangerous.  It is dangerous because - just like economic Marxism - it is Utopian.  It holds that with just the right application of coercion, a truly just and equal society can be formed and maintained.
Like all Utopian visions, it fails to account for the reality of Original Sin and Man's fallen nature which are one reason why Marxism has never actually worked in practice, and never can.  

Furthermore, while both Scripture and the US Declaration of Independence affirm that all people are of equal moral worth as God's own creatures, yet clearly not all people are equally skilled, intelligent, diligent, attractive, or lucky, etc. (this is what the Communist party official realizes at the end of the great war movie Enemy at the Gates).  If people are allowed to make free choices and pursue their own goals and live their own lives without interference, then equality of outcome is most certainly not what will occur.  The only way to enforce equality, then, is to take away freedom from some in order to 'level the playing field' for others.  Yet such a regime would clearly be massively repressive and unjust, and would necessarily be Totalitarian.

In a time when many prominent politicians and "movers and shakers" in our culture seem to have embraced some aspects of this ideology, all lovers of freedom must be vigilant indeed and remember the old saying: "The Road to Hell is paved with good intentions."

Happy Independence Day!

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Does Protestantism contribute to Western Civilization?

St Paul's (Anglican) Cathedral, London

I follow a few Roman Catholic bloggers, thinkers, and video bloggers.  As fellow Christians we have a great many shared interests morally, spiritually, politically, and culturally: we proclaim the same Risen Christ, read the same New Testament, recite the same Creeds, worship on the same Holy Days (and even sing some of the same hymns), advocate for the same moral values.  Despite the fact that we have some different understandings of the church, spiritual authority, and how our relationship to God 'works', we nevertheless share a great deal of common interest and concern.
In fact, I would say that Roman Catholics more than either Evangelical or Historic Protestants are really on the forefront of thinking through how to revitalize and preserve Western Civilization.

This is a good thing because (despite the naysayers in some quarters of our culture), while every civilization has its evils (including the West), nevertheless Western Civilization has done more to promote goodness, freedom, truth, reason and mercy than any other human movement in History, and I'm very proud to be a product and heir of it.

Western Civilization is inescapably bound up with Christianity, so much so that Winston Churchill quite happily called it "Christian Civilization".  Inspired by the Christian message, the artistic and spiritual achievements of Western Civilization are simply staggering.

But what I've noticed is that you'll sometimes hear Roman Catholic thinkers say something along the lines of "When I say Western or Christian civilization, I am essentially talking about Roman Catholic Civilization, because the two are the same thing..."  Indeed, a few would even point to the iconoclastic tendencies of some forms of Protestantism (i.e. Puritanism), to argue that Protestantism as a whole has been a corrosive influence on Western Civilization, rather than really a contributor to it.

But clearly it is a mistake to equate Western Civilization with the Roman Catholic Church or its members' contributions.  For one thing, a major contributor to Western Civilization is without doubt the pre-Christian Grecco-Roman heritage.  The art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and legal traditions of Athens and Rome are absolutely essential to Western Civilization, and yet none of these were originally created by Roman Catholics.  Yet what would Western Civilization be without Homer or Plato or Aristotle or Virgil or Cicero?

Even if we narrow the discussion to Christendom and explicitly Christian achievements, we still find that there are major contributions to Western Civilization coming from non-Roman Catholic sources.  For example, if Greece is part of Western Civilization (and it obviously is), then that means that the cultural achievements born out of Eastern Orthodox Churches need to be considered right along side those of the Roman Catholic Church.  And it is certain that the contributions to Christian Civilization coming from Eastern Orthodox creators such as Rachmaninoff or Dostoevsky are substantial.

There can be absolutely no doubt that Protestants also have also made major positive contributions to Western, Christian Civilization as a whole.  A few examples:

I once heard the (Roman Catholic) Philosopher Peter Kreeft say that one reason he believed in the existence of God was simply the music of Johann Sebastian Bach.  I agree.
And Bach was a Protestant; he composed major spiritual works such as the St. Matthew Passion.
Beethoven was Roman Catholic, to be sure...but Handel was Protestant.  Palestrina was Catholic, but Mendelssohn was Protestant.  So were Paul Manz, and Hubert Parry and John Rutter and Henry Purcell.

Sacred Architecture:
Catholics are quite right to celebrate the great medieval and Renaissance churches...but what of the very iconic and significant contributions to sacred architecture made by men such as Sir Christopher Wren or Richard Upjohn?  The Gothic revival itself was born in Protestant England.

Visual Arts:
I'll freely admit that most of the greatest visual artists, especially those working with Biblical and Spiritual themes were Roman Catholics, such as Michelangelo and Raphael.  But surely the contributions of a Protestant like Rembrandt are nothing to sneer at either?

Catholics are quite right to rejoice in the majesty of Dante's Divine Comedy.  But what of Milton's Paradise Lost?  What of Bunyan?  For that matter, what of Shakespeare, whose work is shot through with spiritual themes?  All Protestant.

Many younger Roman Catholics that I know are glad to count Tolkien and Chesterton among their number.  And well they should be, for these are simply outstanding authors.  But let us not forget that C.S. Lewis, George MacDonald, Dorothy Sayers, T.S. Elliot, and Charles Williams were all Protestants.

Of course, for English-speakers the King James Version of the Bible is itself an extremely important contribution to our literary tradition.

Ideas and Learning:
In terms of the "big ideas" that shaped Western Civilization, the Protestant affirmation of 'the priesthood of all believers' meant that each believer was equal in the community of faith, which led to the birth of modern notions of equality and the belief that every citizen should have a say in government (i.e. 'one-man-one-vote' style democracy).  This is why the Pilgrims on the Mayflower all got together and voted on a written constitution for how their colony would be run, which has had a tremendous impact on the emergence of our American Republic.  The Protestant insistence that everyone should read the Bible for himself led to the development of universal education and widespread literacy.

Institutions of higher learning such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale and many others besides, which have come to have tremendous cultural influence, were originally created for the stated purpose of spreading Protestant Christianity.  This is barely even to begin to scratch the surface of the influence of Protestantism on Western thought and ideas over the course of these last 500 years.

Certainly, I do not aim to downplay the absolutely essential and glorious contributions of Roman Catholics to our Civilization; they are profound.  Nor am I suggesting that we should be content to enjoy or celebrate the contributions of only our own particular branch of Christianity.  The truth I want to highlight is that members of all three major branches of Christianity - Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant - have made significant contributions to our Christian Civilization, and we should celebrate and share together all of them as gifts to us all from the Lord whom we all profess.

For the reasons noted in my previous post, I have come to believe that it is Secularism (not Protestantism) which is incapable of making significant contributions to our civilization, because it has no great Beauty with a capitol 'B' or Truth with a capitol 'T' that has the power to captivate men's minds and inspire their creativity for centuries on end, as the Lord of the Bible has indeed done for Western Civilization.

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Beauty will Save the World...

I spent years as a child attending mass at my Roman Catholic School.  Each week we entered a church, fragrant with with candles and hints of incense.  Before us were statues of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, and a statue of Christ crucified, as well as a priest wearing colorful robes.  Surrounding us were dazzling stained glass windows depicting numerous Biblical stories and saints and Christian symbols, much of which I did not understand...but it clearly meant something.

Later in my youth I joined a fervently evangelical Baptist Church.  Many evangelical churches - especially those with roots in the Puritan and Anabaptist traditions - have mostly eschewed iconography and art...though it does have a way of sneaking in from time to time anyway.
Indeed, when the church I attended remodeled its sanctuary (about the time I moved away for college), I was pleased to see that they replaced their opaque purple windows with far more colorful and attractive stained glass windows, each with identical images of the Cross.

These two churches point toward the different approaches Christians have taken to sacred art.  Some Christians (those in the Puritan traditions) have looked with suspicion on all sacred art as potential idols that break the Second Commandment, which says: "You shall not make for yourself a carved image [or 'idol']...you shall not bow down to them..." (Exodus 20:4-5).

Other Christians have pointed out that later in the Book of Exodus itself God instructs his people to build a beautiful tabernacle of Gold and fine cloth and carpentry in which to worship Him, complete with images of plants and angels and golden statues of angels as well.  These Christians (including Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, and others) have to varying degrees embraced sacred art as an important reminder of the creativity and beauty of God.

I too have come to believe that works of artistic Beauty actually have profound theological significance.  You may note that this is a theme running through my recent posts since the Notre Dame fire.

Not only do I believe works of Beauty have profound theological significance, but also that they will be an important pointer to the reality of God for some who may not be swayed by Reason or logical arguments for God's existence.

I've heard that Dostoyevsky, a Christian author who wrote the profound and theologically significant novel Brothers Karamazov (among others), once said "Beauty will save the world."  I think there is truth in that.

In the beginning, the Bible tells us, God created the Heavens and the earth and all that is in them. "And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good" (Genesis 1:31).  The word for "good" in the Greek version of the Old Testament that was used by many of the early Churches is 'kalos' which means "good, excellent, and beautiful."

But no one who has ever gazed upon the stars, or stood on the rim of a great canyon, or watched the setting sun needs a Greek or Hebrew word study to tell them that God's creation is beautiful and that He is a wondrous creator.  And note: Man was formed in God's image, which accounts for our tendency to create beautiful things as well.  J.R.R. Tolkien, a devout Christian whose magnificent work The Lord of the Rings contains a great many Christian themes, quite consciously saw his work in creating a fictional world as a reflection, however small and imperfect, of the world-creating work of the Living God whose image Tolkien was created to bear.

We have a good and beautiful God who creates a good and beautiful world (though it later became distorted by sin), and he populated it with people created to bear his own image who are themselves blessed with great creativity and love to make wondrous art to the glory of God.  This is why Christians across the ages have written amazing works of literature, composed lovely music, crafted intricate statues and gorgeous stained-glass windows, painted icons, built inspiring sanctuaries and cathedrals.

Even among Churches of the more Puritan traditions you will almost invariably find quite handsome pulpits and very nice leather-bound Bibles with gold-gilt page edges, and will hear lovely hymns being sung, which are all types of sacred art.  We humans cannot get away from this because we are embodied creatures who are creative by nature.

Fr. Patrick Smith, an Anglican priest who was a mentor to me in college (in explaining why his own Episcopal Church put such emphasis on beauty and artistic excellence, and was willing to commit resources to them) pointed out that God certainly does not disapprove of the material world or physical beauty - in fact he created it; and in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ he brought the very Life of God into the world of material stuff, transforming it forever.

This is the theological basis for embracing sacred art.

But such an embrace of beauty also strengthens the mission of the Church as well, which brings me back to the quote from Dostoyevsky: 'Beauty will save the world.'

There are many compelling logical arguments to believe in God.  Yet Beauty has a persuasive power that transcends logic and reason; Beauty has the power to resonate with us on a very deep level; beauty stirs our longing for Him who is the fount of all the beautiful things, the source of all songs and wonder.  We glory in all this beautiful sacred art not simply for its own sake, but also because it serves as a pointer to Him whose life is forever a Dance of supremely Beautiful, Sacred, and Divine Love.

It is into that Triune Dance that we are called by the same Christ who is also the true Way for us to get there.

I had an experience a few years ago that powerfully brought this all together for me (again).  I went with a group from the church I was pastoring to Saint Joseph's Abbey in Covington, Louisiana for a quiet retreat.  Our group was invited by the monks to join with them in chanting the Psalms at their prayer offices sprinkled throughout the day.
On our last night of the retreat, a storm rolled in after we had attended Vespers (Evening Prayer) and eaten dinner.  At first there was no rain, only a howling wind, and distant flashes of lightening and sounds of rumbling thunder.  I decided to walk to the glorious Abbey Church rather early before Compline (Late-Night Prayer), in order to beat the rain.  I found the church very dark - lit by a single candle in the sanctuary - with flashes outside occasionally lighting up the whole place.  When the rain started it came down hard and loud.  I sat down to pray and, after a few minutes in the quiet, turned on my MP3 player, and this is what I heard (close your eyes and imagine you are sitting in the vast, dark Abbey, with the storm raging outside):

Actually, the exact recording I heard was this one (which is even better, but has an annoying commercial before it).

I tell you, this experience was like another conversion.  In that moment I felt that even had I been a militant atheist I would have been converted to faith in Christ by the sheer transcendent beauty of the experience.

Indeed the words of the repeating chorus are the traditional Ave Maria ("Hail Mary") - half of which is taken from Luke chapter 1.  The other words of the more plain-chant sounding verses are also taken from the Birth narratives of Christ (such as Luke 1:38 and John 1:14).  The song tells of the embodiment of the Good and Beautiful Creator God in the flesh, through the Virgin Mary, taking up residence in this material world.  The song was not only about the incarnation of God in Christ in the world, but the beauty of the song, and of the Abbey where I sat, were indeed embodied, that is incarnate, witnesses to this same spiritual reality.  It is hard to fully put into words how Beauty and Truth came rushing together upon my soul in those moments of meditating upon the beauty of the Incarnation of Jesus.

By comparison, the worldviews of atheism and secularism and the kind of "generic popular culture" that secularism produces is utterly incapable of producing anything like this kind of sublime experience of deep soul-stirring beauty.  They can entertain, but they cannot inspire anyone with a genuine experience of transcendence; indeed, for these worldviews, there is no actual transcendent Reality beyond our own feelings.  For this reason, they simply haven't the spiritual depth and mystical freight that is necessary to drive men to erect cathedrals or to inspire the writing of Mendelssohn's "Lift Thine Eyes," or to sustain our Civilization into the future.

The fact that such timeless works of art exist at all, points us to the truth that there is indeed a Transcendent reality - a Divine Logos - And that Word, that Logos, says the Christian faith, was became flesh, and dwelt among us, and his name is Jesus.

So let the people of Jesus - in word, deed, character, and work - be people of creative and life-giving beauty.

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Why is (much) Modern Art so bad?

As I mentioned in a recent post, I've run across Brian Holdsworth recently, a web designer, graphic artist, and lay Roman Catholic apologist.  I've really been enjoying his thought-provoking videos on various topics, which are his attempt to do his part to help renew Christian Civilization.

Here is one really insightful example:

I must hasten to add, as with all things, there are exceptions to this generalization - there are works and styles of modern art that are quite good (indeed, numerous different styles fall under the heading of 'modern art').  But a great deal of modern art (contemporary abstract art in particular), and a great deal of modern architecture really is...ugly.  And for that reason, is loathed by the masses of common men who have not taken college courses on appreciating modern art.

I believe the intuitive reaction is quite instructive: A 'common man' intuitively understands that a gothic cathedral is beautiful; the same with the ancient Greek Parthenon in Athens, or Leonardo's Mona Lisa, or Michelangelo's Pieta, or the Mayan Pyramids of the Yucatan, or the knot-work carvings of the ancient Scandinavians.  No one needs to take a university class be taught to appreciate these things.
We all see immediately they simply are beautiful; in some small way they share in and communicate the reality of Heavenly Beauty and Harmony.

On the other hand, I have certainly had the experience of visiting a University Art School's exhibition or (worse still) standing in a museum, looking at some crumpled up pieces of metal or some random smears of color across a white canvas, and said "Why is this considered art?  I could have done that when I was 4..."

Maybe you've had that experience as well.  Why is it that so much unintelligible rubbish passes for art among wealthy or well-educated elites?
I suspect part of the issue may indeed be elitism itself: 'We who have taken courses on modern art are insiders, we get the reference, we are in on the joke, while the poor uneducated folks on Main Street just don't get it.'
But despite the ridiculous prices that some of these works can fetch at auction, it seems to me that more people are waking up the fact that the emperor has no clothes.

Cy Twombly's "Untitled" sold for $46,437,500 in 2017.
It was created by putting a brush on the end of a pole. 

I think Holdsworth, in his video above, puts his finger on the core of the issue: there was a shift in our culture from Artist as expressing praise to the glory of God, or even praise to the nation, or even celebrating another human being, to the Artist as practicing self-expression.  In many (obviously, not all) cases, art has gone from looking out at the world and celebrating something 'other than me/bigger than me' to a kind of navel gazing.

But then the question has to be raised, why is this artist's self-expression so exceptionally valuable?  If there is no objective artistic excellence in the work itself, then why should I pay money to go see this work in a museum or to buy it to hang in my home?  After all, I am every bit as much a 'self' as the artist, and I am more than capable of crumbling up my own tin-foil if that is what I feel like doing to express my own angst or whatever...and it is much cheaper than paying for the expression of some other person I'll never meet.

On the other hand, the more public nature of the classic understanding of what art is all about (not only my own expression, but also celebrating real objective beauty) necessarily puts an emphasis on excellence, which gives such art wider appeal.  The result is that Michelangelo has produced something that I most emphatically could not have done myself - there is a wonder to the fact that another human being created this kind of excellence.

I've heard glad rumors of a renewed interest in representational painting in European schools in recent years, and I expect time and the changing of generations will sift out the more bizarre forms of modernist self-expression.  I also expect quite a few cities will in decades to come begin to wonder how they might be able to remove the huge pillars of polished twisting metal from in front of their otherwise beautiful courthouses.  But people will still travel across the world to crowd shoulder to shoulder in the Sistine Chapel and behold timeless art, and that is a hopeful sign.

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Bishop Barron on Jordan Peterson Interview

Two of the "internet intellectuals" whom I've been attending to of late are Jordan Peterson the (agnostic? secular Christian?) Canadian Psychologist and professor and also Bishop Robert Barron, who seems to me one of the most winsome, intellectually compelling, and interesting Christian (and specifically Roman Catholic) voices in the Public Square today.

So, thanks to YouTube algorithms, I ran across this video.  Catholic podcaster Brandon Vogt is interviewing Bishop Barron and asking him to reflect upon the (much longer) conversation that Bishop Barron recently had with Jordan Peterson.  This interview is fabulous and well worth your time.

I love Bishop Barron's observation, when reflecting upon Jungian archetypes and the "hero's journey" that plays so prominently in world literature, that in the Bible people are called on an adventure, a hero's journey with God - Abraham is called to leave his home and follow God; Jesus calls us to leave all and take up the cross and follow him.  Yet in an even deeper sense, Bishop Barron points out, the Bible is the story about God making the hero's journey in order to find us. Also, I now need to go back and re-watch True Grit...

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